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6.1     Kiwifruit

6.1.1      Kiwifruit industry profile

New Zealand’s 2,516 kiwifruit growers produce approximately 140 million trays for export from 12,185 productive hectares. The Bay of Plenty is the focus of kiwifruit growing (principally Katikati, Te Puke, Tauranga and Opotiki) producing over 80% of the crop.

New Zealand-produced fresh kiwifruit exports were valued at $1,181 million in 2015, and $1,660 million in 2016. This represents an increase in value from 2015 to 2016 exports of $480 million (40%) and is the highest ever recorded value for exported kiwifruit.

The New Zealand kiwifruit industry has recovered from the devastating effects of a bacterial canker disease specific to kiwifruit, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (termed Psa). Psa was detected in New Zealand in November 2010 and rapidly caused widespread and severe impacts to NZ's kiwifruit industry. Psa is also present in a number of countries including Italy, Japan, South Korea and Chile. There is no current cure for the disease.

The New Zealand kiwifruit industry’s dominant ‘Hayward’ variety (‘green’ kiwifruit) appears to be relatively tolerant to the disease and new varieties are being progressed (FreshFacts 2013).

More than 4,300 hectares of the new gold kiwifruit cultivar, ‘Zesy002’, commonly known as Gold3, have now been licensed in New Zealand with more than 60 million trays of the new fruit, marketed as Zespri SunGold Kiwifruit, expected to be produced annually by 2018. The new cultivar was fast-tracked through commercial launch in response to the identification of Psa in 2010, and is now seen as a cornerstone in the Psa recovery pathway. SunGold’s market performance has been very strong and as a result Zespri has released an additional 400 hectares of licence in 2016.

The industry-funded entity, Kiwifruit Vine Health (KVH), leads the New Zealand recovery from Psa. This includes a comprehensive research and development programme involving researchers from New Zealand and around the world, working to develop strategies to combat the disease. KVH is also tasked with leading wider biosecurity for the kiwifruit industry. Its vision is “to achieve a high health status of kiwifruit vines, to enable a thriving and profitable New Zealand kiwifruit industry”. The key focus areas in support of this vision are: advocacy, promoting best practice biosecurity to growers, providing technical advice, removing wild kiwifruit and abandoned orchards, profiling new and emerging risks and managing industry preparedness and response.

 

Table 6.1.1: Kiwifruit industry statistics

Season (to 31 March)

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Trays submitted (million)

102

109.4

107

105.9

119.5

105.7

97.69

97.8

123.4

Trays sold (million)

92.4

100

98.6

98.1

109.1

101.3

95.1

95.2

117.0

Yield (trays/ha)

8,371

8.866

8,546

8,255

9556

8621

8,684

8,076

10,157

Planting (ha)

12,186

12,337

12,525

12,825

12500

12263

11,250

11,233

12,185

Growers

2,727

2,710

2,711

2,706

2662

2636

2,556

2,540

2,516

Packhouses

75

71

71

67

63

59

46

50

51

Coolstores

83

92

77

83

79

76

77

62

64

 

As a result of the Kiwifruit Industry restructuring Act 1999, Zespri Group Ltd is a single desk exporter of kiwifruit to countries other than Australia. Zespri Group Ltd (Chief Executive – Lain Jager, www.Zespri.com) is a private company, employing around 350 people and owned by current and past New Zealand kiwifruit growers.

Kiwifruit exported to Australia are a prescribed product under the New Zealand Horticulture Export Authority Act (NZKPGA Product Group Manager – Terry Richards), and the 14 HEA-licenced exporters to Australia are represented by Kiwifruit Exporters To Australia (KETA, www.keta.co.nz). Kiwifruit can be exported to countries other than Australia by applying to the industry regulator, Kiwifruit New Zealand, for a collaborative marketing programme. In 2016/17 there were 12 companies operating 25 collaborative marketing sales programmes with Zespri, exporting just over three million trays of kiwifruit from New Zealand to markets other than Australia.

The interests of growers are represented by New Zealand Kiwifruit Growers Incorporated (Chief Executive – Nikki Johnson, www.nzkgi.org.nz). NZKGI’s vision is to be a strong grower advocacy organisation that leads growers and engages with industry partners.  It has a mission to advocate, protect and enhance the commercial and political interests of NZ kiwifruit growers. NZKGI activities are led through strategic objectives in the areas of Labour & Education, External Relations, Industry Stability, Performance and Organisational Management.

New Zealand kiwifruit is exported under the following three HS Codes:

  • 0810.50.00.10: kiwifruit, gold fleshed, fresh
  • 0810.50.00.19: kiwifruit, green fleshed, fresh
  • 0810.50.00.29: kiwifruit, other than gold or green fleshed, fresh
  1. 6.1.2  Kiwifruit exports

Kiwifruit continues to be New Zealand’s largest single horticultural export by volume and value, and again exceeded $1 billion for exports in 2016. Volumes and value of exports continue to increase for this reporting period with export volumes increasing 42% while values increased by 79% in 2016 compared to 2014.

The European Union and Japan takes 56% of all kiwifruit exported. The per tonne average value of kiwifruit exports to Japan is higher ($3,758/tonne) than the value achieved for kiwifruit exported to the European Union ($2,163/tonne). China is the third most important market with continued growth in exports, up in value by 67% over the report period.

Table 6.1.2: Kiwifruit (0810.50.00) export markets 2014-16(year ending June, tonnes and $NZ FOB)

Market

2014

2015

2016

Volume

Value

Volume

Value

Volume

Value

European Union

162,832

305,343,361

186,990

350,796,556

200,317

433,219,812

Japan

72,035

238,474,945

85,864

274,510,659

103,839

390,229,542

China

40,909

123,005,867

57,899

199,602,558

93,646

371,369,466

Taiwan

25,979

69,368,492

31,530

100,788,576

39,570

154,124,390

United States of America

9,686

21,472,024

11,182

30,090,378

19,046

58,984,858

Korea, Republic of

17,329

44,300,422

18,880

51,376,244

21,816

56,316,782

Australia

16,444

33,392,197

18,006

41,098,074

17,549

41,736,216

Hong Kong

7,072

21,462,466

7,183

25,636,734

7,898

35,205,294

Malaysia

4,579

11,864,023

5,443

16,845,059

4,909

16,467,863

Singapore

3,541

9,944,022

3,932

12,536,357

3,588

14,630,687

India

2,376

5,207,129

3,489

8,569,427

4,886

13,378,656

Indonesia

2,435

6,802,360

3,150

9,847,234

3,681

12,809,965

Canada

1,868

3,655,019

2,903

7,093,134

4,403

11,546,642

Thailand

2,025

4,617,399

2,081

5,906,956

2,759

8,931,780

Vietnam

1,003

2,657,942

1,588

5,228,052

2,278

8,808,704

United Arab Emirates

2,118

4,424,000

2,295

6,032,927

2,442

7,633,768

Brazil

1,639

3,191,843

2,428

6,222,143

2,482

6,737,262

South Africa

1,730

3,644,347

1,774

4,042,861

1,442

3,321,711

Saudi Arabia

713

1,718,583

1,585

4,713,514

988

3,075,458

Philippines

755

1,538,432

972

2,150,592

1,098

2,971,330

Mexico

1,484

3,184,578

2,428

6,643,874

1,003

2,964,982

Kuwait

816

1,730,517

880

2,281,933

851

2,728,250

Russia

1,552

2,855,989

604

1,343,614

927

2,229,212

Israel

401

902,590

516

1,212,080

731

1,957,427

Mauritius

571

1,250,870

482

1,118,786

542

1,433,407

Bahrain

358

735,689

365

979,385

347

1,111,416

Reunion

381

813,638

362

799,720

310

784,858

Qatar

0

0

199

574,374

256

780,097

Lebanon

286

548,408

264

615,343

236

643,245

Costa Rica

190

394,771

192

520,011

212

630,155

New Caledonia

284

844,047

294

847,939

208

594,898

French Polynesia

149

489,275

149

500,018

186

593,434

El Salvador

120

249,963

90

232,889

136

397,425

Guatemala

143

283,463

136

362,020

68

201,727

Fiji

31

86,585

35

101,995

47

128,161

Argentina

0

0

24

47,467

49

104,442

Cambodia

0

0

0

0

17

58,564

Pacific Islands

13

42,809

17

49,360

18

57,081

Myanmar

0

0

8

31,597

10

40,444

Papua New Guinea

3

9,804

4

11,144

4

10,021

Egypt

0

0

23

67,526

0

0

Chile

0

0

0

0

0

0

Uruguay

0

0

0

0

0

0

Syria

0

0

0

0

0

0

Oman

0

0

0

0

0

0

Jordan

124

172,097

320

566,845

0

0

Bermuda

0

0

0

0

0

0

Sri Lanka

9

15,948

0

0

0

0

Total

383,983

$930,695,914

456,568

$1,181,995,955

544,795

$1,668,949,432

% change (Yr/Yr)

-4%

-0.4%

19%

27%

19%

41%

Source: Statistics New Zealand